The scientific and research community is no exception to the phenomenon of fraud, reinforced over the last fifteen years or so by the rise of the web. Moreover, as research takes place in an increasingly competitive, globalised and complex environment, certain factors can influence the conditions under which research practices are carried out and lead to breaches of scientific integrity.
Nowadays, this phenomenon is taken seriously by all research actors: researchers, financiers, host institutions, scientific publishers, etc...
Fraud can be defined as "a serious and intentional violation in the conduct of research and the dissemination of results", thereby excluding "honest errors of good faith or honest differences of opinion". 
The scientific community agrees to identify three main types of fraud:


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